Burning Mouth Syndrome Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Burning Mouth Syndrome

Burning mouth syndrome is the medical term for continuous (chronic) or recurrent burning in the mouth without an apparent cause.

This discomfort may impact the tongue, gums, lips, within your cheeks, roof of your mouth or extensive areas of your whole mouth. The burning experience can be severe, as if you scalded your mouth.

Burning mouth syndrome can appear unexpectedly or develop gradually gradually. Unfortunately, the cause frequently can’t be determined. Although that makes treatment more challenging, you can often get burning mouth syndrome under much better control by working closely with your health care team.

Burning Mouth Syndrome Symptoms

Symptoms of burning mouth syndrome might consist of:

  • A burning or scalded feeling that most commonly impacts your tongue, however might likewise affect your lips, gums, taste buds, throat or whole mouth.
  • A feeling of dry mouth with increased thirst.
  • Taste changes, such as a bitter or metal taste.
  • Loss of taste.

The discomfort from burning mouth syndrome generally has several different patterns. It might:

  • Happen every day, with little discomfort when you wake, but worsen as the day progresses.
  • Start as quickly as you awaken and last all the time.
  • Reoccur.

Whatever pattern of mouth discomfort you have, burning mouth syndrome might last for months to years. In unusual cases, symptoms might suddenly disappear by themselves or become less regular. Some feelings might be momentarily eliminated during eating or drinking.

Burning mouth syndrome typically doesn’t cause any obvious physical changes to your tongue or mouth.

When to see a doctor

If you have pain, burning or pain of your tongue, lips, gums or other areas of your mouth, see your doctor or dental practitioner. They may need to interact to assist pinpoint a cause and develop an efficient treatment plan.

Causes of Burning Mouth Syndrome

The reason for burning mouth syndrome can be classified as primary or secondary.

Primary burning mouth syndrome

When no clinical or lab problems can be identified, the condition is called primary or idiopathic burning mouth syndrome Some research suggests that primary burning mouth syndrome is related to problems with taste and sensory nerves of the peripheral or main nerve system.

Secondary burning mouth syndrome

Often burning mouth syndrome is caused by an underlying medical condition. In these cases, it’s called secondary burning mouth syndrome.

Underlying problems that may be linked to secondary burning mouth syndrome consist of:

  • Dry mouth (xerostomia), which can be caused by numerous medications, health problems, problems with salivary gland function or the side effects of cancer treatment
  • Other oral conditions, such as a fungal infection of the mouth (oral thrush), an inflammatory condition called oral lichen planus or a condition called geographic tongue that provides the tongue a map-like look
  • Nutritional shortages, such as a lack of iron, zinc, folate (vitamin B-9), thiamin (vitamin B-1), riboflavin (vitamin B-2), pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) and cobalamin (vitamin B-12).
  • Dentures, especially if they do not fit well, which can put stress on some muscles and tissues of your mouth, or if they include materials that irritate mouth tissues.
  • Allergic reactions or reactions to foods, food flavorings, other food ingredients, scents, dyes or dental-work substances.
  • Reflux of stomach acid (gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD) that enters your mouth from your stomach.
  • Particular medications, especially high blood pressure medications.
  • Oral routines, such as tongue thrusting, biting the pointer of the tongue and teeth grinding (bruxism).
  • Endocrine conditions, such as diabetes or underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism).
  • Excessive mouth irritation, which might arise from overbrushing your tongue, using abrasive tooth pastes, overusing mouthwashes or having too many acidic drinks.
  • Mental factors, such as stress and anxiety, depression or stress.

Risk factors

Hidden issues that may be linked to secondary burning mouth syndrome include:

  • Dry mouth (xerostomia), which can be triggered by numerous medications, health problems, issues with salivary gland function or the side effects of cancer treatment.
  • Other oral conditions, such as a fungal infection of the mouth (oral thrush), an inflammatory condition called oral lichen planus or a condition called geographical tongue that gives the tongue a map-like look.
  • Nutritional deficiencies, such as an absence of iron, zinc, folate (vitamin B-9), thiamin (vitamin B-1), riboflavin (vitamin B-2), pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) and cobalamin (vitamin B-12).
  • Dentures, particularly if they don’t fit well, which can place stress on some muscles and tissues of your mouth, or if they contain products that irritate mouth tissues.
  • Allergies or reactions to foods, food flavorings, other food ingredients, fragrances, dyes or dental-work compounds.
  • Reflux of stomach acid (gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD) that enters your mouth from your stomach.
  • Certain medications, particularly high blood pressure medications.
  • Oral practices, such as tongue thrusting, biting the suggestion of the tongue and teeth grinding (bruxism).
  • Endocrine disorders, such as diabetes or underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism).
  • Excessive mouth inflammation, which might arise from overbrushing your tongue, using abrasive tooth pastes, excessive using mouthwashes or having too many acidic beverages.
  • Psychological elements, such as stress and anxiety, anxiety or stress.

Complications Realted Burning Mouth Syndrome

Complications that burning mouth syndrome may cause or be connected with are mainly associated to pain. They include, for example:

  • Problem dropping off to sleep.
  • Difficulty consuming.
  • Depression.
  • Anxiety.

Burning Mouth Syndrome Diagnosis

There’s no one test that can determine if you have burning mouth syndrome. Rather, your doctor or dental expert will try to dismiss other problems before diagnosing burning mouth syndrome.

Your doctor or dental practitioner will evaluate your medical history and medications, analyze your mouth, and ask you to describe your symptoms, oral habits and oral care regimen. In addition, your doctor will likely carry out a basic medical exam, looking for signs of other conditions.

You might have a few of the following tests:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests can inspect your complete blood count, glucose level, thyroid function, dietary factors and immune functioning, all of which might provide clues about the source of your mouth pain.
  • Oral cultures or biopsies. Taking and evaluating samples from your mouth can figure out whether you have a fungal, bacterial or viral infection.
  • Allergic reaction tests. Your doctor might recommend allergic reaction screening to see if you might dislike certain foods, additives and even compounds in dentures.
  • Salivary measurements. With burning mouth syndrome, you may feel that you have a dry mouth. Salivary tests can confirm whether you have a lowered salivary flow.
  • Gastric reflux tests. These tests can figure out if you have GERD.
  • Imaging. Your doctor may recommend an MRI, CT scan or other imaging tests to look for other health problems.
  • Temporarily stopping medication. If you take medications that may contribute to mouth discomfort, your doctor may recommend momentarily stopping them, if possible, to see if your pain disappears. Do not attempt this on your own, since it can be harmful to stop some medications.
  • Psychological questionnaires. You may be asked to fill out surveys that can help identify if you have symptoms of depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions.

Burning Mouth Syndrome Treatment

For secondary burning mouth syndrome, treatment depends on any hidden conditions that may be triggering your mouth pain.

For instance, changing inadequately fitting dentures or taking supplements for a vitamin deficiency may relieve your pain. That’s why it’s important to aim to identify the cause. When any underlying causes are dealt with, your burning mouth syndrome symptoms should improve.

There’s no known remedy for primary burning mouth syndrome and nobody exact method to treat it. Treatment depends upon your particular symptoms and is aimed at controlling them. You might have to try a number of treatment techniques before finding one or a combination that helps reduce your mouth pain.

Treatment choices might consist of:

  • Saliva replacement products.
  • Specific oral rinses or lidocaine.
  • Capsaicin, a painkiller that comes from chili peppers.
  • An anticonvulsant medication called clonazepam (Klonopin).
  • Specific antidepressants.
  • Medications that obstruct nerve pain.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy.

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