A dental cystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a dental cyst along with part of the adjacent root. This technique is usually used when the mass has reached a medium to large size and conservative treatment has not yielded any positive results.
The complexity of the operation will depend solely on the severity of the case. Sometimes the cyst thins the wall of the jaw so much that in some places there is no bone at all (this is determined by palpation). In these cases the incision is made only through the mucosa. The flap is only created from the mucous membrane, since the separation of the periosteum of the jaw from the fibrous membrane of the cyst is difficult and can lead to a cyst rupture. It is the severity and neglect of the disease that will directly determine which incision the patient will make and which technique the doctor will use.
Indications for Cystectomy
The main indications for the removal of the cyst:
- A cyst formed due to a malformation of the odontogenic epithelium;
- A large cyst on the upper or lower jaw, if there are no teeth in its area;
- A small cyst located within 1 or 2 teeth.
- large cysts in the lower or upper jaw, with the absence of adjacent teeth and preservation of bone tissue;
- Absence of positive dynamics in the conservative treatment of dental cysts.
- Only a doctor can determine whether this particular operation is necessary for the patient, after examining the patient and examining the problem in detail.
Contraindications for Surgery
Despite the fact that, the operation is considered quite simple, there are still limitations in its implementation.The main contraindications to cystectomy:
- diseases of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity (gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontitis);
- Cardiovascular system disorders;
- diabetes mellitus;
- malignant tumors in the oral cavity.
Cystectomy surgery is very consonant in its name with cystotomy, an easier and simpler operation. Many people confuse them, however, the two procedures are radically different from each other. A cystotomy for a dental cyst involves removing only the front wall of the cyst, when a cystectomy eliminates the problem completely.
As a side note. Cystectomy surgery does not take much time, it lasts no more than an hour. It is quick and as painless as possible for the patient. The rehabilitation period also takes place in the shortest time if all your doctor’s orders are followed.
During the surgery, not only the root of the tooth that has developed a cyst must be resected, but also the roots of neighboring teeth, which is why it is necessary to treat them in advance – to fill the root canals. This usually occurs 2-5 days before the cystectomy. The patient may also be asked to undergo additional examinations by visiting the offices of a general practitioner, cardiologist, etc. What kind of additional examinations are necessary in each case, the patient will learn only at the reception.
How Does Cystectomy Proceed?
- Examination by the doctor of the damaged area, X-ray diagnosis.
- Carrying out anesthesia. The operation is performed under conductive and infiltration anesthesia.
- Conducting the surgery. As a rule, the tooth is completely extracted during the procedure.
- Through the resulting hole, the dentist removes the cyst.
- After scraping, it is required to fill the cyst. The cavity is filled with a special bone-forming medication to speed up healing. Xenografts or materials made of bone chips and the patient’s own blood are also suitable for successful healing.
- Suturing the wound
- At the end of the cystotomy procedure a complex anti-inflammatory and antibacterial therapy is prescribed, as well as control examinations (pictures are taken once a month to monitor the dynamics of bone recovery in the area of the removed tissue).
The cystectomy procedure has no age restrictions. However, each clinical case requires an individual approach and treatment. Your doctor will tell you more about how the surgery is performed, what treatment is necessary during rehabilitation and other nuances at the consultation.
Please note. Within several days after a cystectomy there may be some pain (from aching to moderately acute) and slight swelling of tissues. You should not be alarmed by this. If the swelling is accompanied by an increase in body temperature for 3 or more days, you should consult a doctor.
The Recovery Period After Surgery. Basic Recommendations
During the postoperative period, in addition to the basic prescriptions of the doctor and systematic examinations, the following rules should be observed:
- Refrain from eating solid foods for at least a month – nuts, candy, etc;
- Carefully watch your oral hygiene;
- On the first day, refrain from hot foods and drinks;
- Try to reduce the chewing load for at least 1 month;
- Rinse your mouth after each meal.
- As a rule, if all recommendations are followed, most patients have a healing period of no more than 2-2.5 weeks.